Skeletal Muscle Adaptation to Exercise Training

Skeletal Muscle Adaptation to Exercise Training

Enhanced Protein Translation Underlies Improved Metabolic and Physical Adaptations to Different Exercise Training Modes in Young and Old Humans

In Brief

Robinson et al. assessed the effects of three different exercise modalities on skeletal muscle adaptations in young and older adults. While all enhanced insulin sensitivity, only HIIT and combined training improved aerobic capacity, associated with enhanced translation of mitochondrial proteins. HIIT effectively improved cardio-metabolic health parameters in aging adults.



  • High-intensity interval training improved age-related decline in muscle mitochondria
  • Training adaptations occurred with increased gene transcripts and ribosome proteins
  • Changes to RNA with training had little overlap with corresponding protein abundance
  • Enhanced ribosomal abundance and protein synthesis explain gains in mitochondria


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