How we measured

How We Measured

OSU School Readiness

Participation in the study generated information about children's early academic and self regulation skills, environmental exposure, and social environments.


Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders Revised (HTKS-R)

The HTKS-r assesses the multiple aspects of self-regulation: working memory, cognitive flexibility, and inhibitory control. Children are given a command and asked to do the opposite action of what the assessor tells them to do.

Dimensional Change Card Sort (DCCS)

The Dimensional Change Card Sort (DCCS) is a standard precedure for assessing executive function in early development. In the DCCS, participants are shown cards that depict objects that vary on three dimensions, such as big blue dog and small yellow bird.. The participants are then asked to match a series of test pictures to the target pictures, first matching the pictures according to one dimension, then according to another, and then according to the third. For example, children might first sort cards by shape, color, and then size.

Woodcock-Johnson Letter Word

The Woodcock-Johnson IV (WJ IV) Tests of Achievement's "Letter-Word Identification" subtest is a valuable tool for assessing word decoding skills, a fundamental aspect of reading fluency. By evaluating both basic letter recognition and the ability to identify less common words, this subtest offers a nuanced understanding of an individual's decoding capabilities. As part of the broader WJ IV assessment, rooted in the CHC theory of cognitive abilities, this subtest contributes to a comprehensive profile of academic strengths and weaknesses. Within educational settings, its ability to isolate and assess decoding skills allows educators to tailor interventions and support reading success.

Woodcock-Johnson Applied Problems

The Woodcock-Johnson Applied Problems assessment is a part of the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement, which measures a child's ability to solve practical math word problems. This test is given orally, and children use paper and pencil to work out their answers. The problems start simple, involving basic math concepts, and get harder, requiring more complex calculations and reasoning. This subtest evaluates skills like problem-solving, understanding which math operations to use, and applying math to real-life situations. It's usually given one-on-one and can help identify a child's strengths and weaknesses in math, guiding teachers and parents in providing the right support and interventions.