Self-Reported Everyday Functioning After COVID-19 Infection

2024  Journal Article

Self-Reported Everyday Functioning After COVID-19 Infection


The significance of this study lies in its contribution to the growing body of evidence on the long-term consequences of COVID-19, highlighting the importance of considering both direct and indirect effects of the pandemic on individuals' health and daily lives.

It underscores the need for comprehensive approaches to support and rehabilitation for those affected by COVID-19, taking into account the multifaceted nature of its impact on everyday functioning.

This research is particularly relevant for healthcare providers, policymakers, and researchers aiming to address the long-term health challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic and improve the quality of life for survivors.


College of Health researcher(s)

OSU Profile


Key Points


Do veterans who had a history of COVID-19 report worse everyday function 18 months after their infection than veterans with a similar risk with no history of COVID-19?


In this cohort study of 372 veterans, many veterans reported worse everyday function compared with how they recalled feeling before the COVID-19 pandemic. However, there was no consistent pattern of worse functioning among those who had a confirmed infection of COVID-19 compared with those without confirmed infection.


These findings suggest that the negative impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on everyday function may occur via multiple pathways regardless of whether or not they had a documented infection with COVID-19.



Changes in everyday functioning are crucial to assessing the long-term impact of COVID-19 infection.


To examine the impact of COVID-19 infection on everyday functioning 18 months after infection among veterans with and without histories of COVID-19 infection.

Design, Setting, and Participants

This cohort study used data from the US Veterans Affairs (VA) and included 186 veterans who had COVID-19 between October 2020 and April 2021 (ie, COVID-19 cohort) and 186 matched comparators who did not have documented COVID-19 infections (ie, control cohort). This match balanced the risk of COVID-19 based on 39 variables measured in the 24 months before infection or match, using principles of target trial emulation. Data were analyzed from December 2022 to December 2023.


First documented COVID-19.

Main Outcome and Measures

The differences in self-reported everyday functioning 18 months after COVID-19 infection were estimated and compared with their matched comparators. Within–matched pair logistic and linear regressions assessed differences in outcomes and were weighted to account for sampling and nonresponse.


Among the 186 matched pairs of participants, their weighted mean age was 60.4 (95% CI, 57.5 to 63.2) years among veterans in the COVID-19 cohort (weighted sample, 91 459 of 101 133 [90.4%] male; 30 611 [30.3%] Black or African American veterans; 65 196 [64.4%] White veterans) and 61.1 (95% CI, 57.8 to 64.4) years among their comparators in the control cohort (91 459 [90.4%] male; 24 576 [24.3%] Black or African American veterans; 70 157 [69.4%] White veterans). A high proportion of veterans in the COVID-19 cohort (weighted percentage, 44.9% [95% CI, 34.2% to 56.2%]) reported that they could do less than what they felt they could do at the beginning of 2020 compared with the control cohort (weighted percentage, 35.3%; [95% CI, 25.6% to 46.4%]; within–matched pair adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.52 [95% CI, 0.79 to 2.91]). There was no association of documented COVID-19 infection with fatigue, substantial pain, limitations in either activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living, severely curtailed life-space mobility, employment, or mean health-related quality of life on a utility scale.

Conclusions and Relevance

In this cohort study of veterans with and without documented COVID-19, many reported a substantial loss of everyday functioning during the pandemic regardless of whether or not they had a documented infection with COVID-19. Future work with larger samples is needed to validate the estimated associations.

Iwashyna, T.J., Smith, V.A., Seelye, S., Bohnert, A.S., Boyko, E.J., Hynes, D.M., Ioannou, G.N., Maciejewski, M.L., O’Hare, A., Viglianti, E.M., Berkowitz, T., Pura, J., Womer, J., Kamphuis, L.A., Monahan, M.L., Bowling, C.B., et al.(2024)Self-Reported Everyday Functioning After COVID-19 InfectionJAMA Network Open7