TitleWORKING Racial/Ethnic Disparities Across Indicators of Cigarette Smoking in the Era of Increased Tobacco Control, 1992- 2019.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2020
AuthorsSakuma, K-L, Pierce, JP, Fagan, P, Nguyen-Grozavu, FT, Leas, EC, Messer, K, White, MM, Tieu, AS, Trinidad, DR
JournalNicotine Tob Res
Date Published11/2020

INTRODUCTION: This study compared tobacco use and cessation for African Americans (AA), Asians/Pacific Islanders (API), Hispanics/Latinos (H/L), American Indian/Alaskan Natives (AI/AN), and non-Hispanic Whites (NHW) in the United States (US) to California (CA), the state with the longest continually funded tobacco control program. The purpose of this study was to identify tobacco use disparities across racial/ethnic groups across time.

METHODS: Cigarette use prevalence (uptake and current use), consumption (mean number of cigarettes smoked per day [CPD]), and quit ratios were calculated across survey years and trends were examined within each race/ethnic group and comparing between CA and the US utilizing the 1992-2019 Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Survey.

RESULTS: Prevalence decreased for all race/ethnic groups. Current use among CA NHW showed significant decline compared to US counterparts, while US H/L showed greater decline than CA counterparts. CPD decreased by approximately 30% across race/ethnic groups, with CA groups having lower numbers. The greatest decrease occurred among AA in CA (average 10.3 CPD (95% CI: 10.3,12.6) in 1992/93 to 3 CPD (95% CI: 2.4,3.7) in 2018/19). Quit ratios increased from 1992/93 to 2018/19 for CA H/L 52.4% (95% CI: 49.8,53.0) to 59.3 (95% CI: 55.8, 62.5), and CA NHWs 61.5% (95% CI: 60.7, 61.9) to 63.8% (95% CI:63.9, 66.9).

CONCLUSIONS: Although overall prevalence decreased over time for each racial/ethnic group, declines in CA outpaced the US only for NHWs. Reductions in CPD were encouraging but the quit ratio points to the need to increase tobacco control efforts toward cessation.

IMPLICATIONS: The successes in reduced cigarette use uptake and prevalence across time for both California and the rest of the US were observed largely among non-Hispanic White populations. While reductions in the number of cigarettes smoked per day are a notable success, particularly among the Californian African Americans, efforts to support quitting across racial/ethnic groups, especially marginalized groups, need to be prioritized.

Alternate JournalNicotine Tob Res
PubMed ID33196799