|Title||Socioeconomic and psychosocial adversity in midlife and depressive symptoms post retirement: a 21-year follow-up of the Whitehall II study.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2015|
|Authors||Virtanen, M, Ferrie, JE, Batty, GD, Elovainio, M, Jokela, M, Vahtera, J, Singh-Manoux, A, Kivimäki, M|
|Journal||Am J Geriatr Psychiatry|
|Keywords||Aged, Depression, Employment, Female, Follow-Up Studies, Humans, Interpersonal Relations, Male, Middle Aged, Retirement, Risk Factors, Social Class, Time Factors, United Kingdom|
OBJECTIVE: We examined whether socioeconomic and psychosocial adversity in midlife predicts post-retirement depressive symptoms.
DESIGN AND SETTING: A prospective cohort study of British civil servants who responded to a self-administered questionnaire in middle-age and at older ages, 21 years later.
PARTICIPANTS: The study sample consisted of 3,939 Whitehall II Study participants (2,789 men, 1,150 women; mean age 67.6 years at follow-up) who were employed at baseline and retired at follow-up.
MEASUREMENTS: Midlife adversity was assessed by self-reported socioeconomic adversity (low occupational position; poor standard of living) and psychosocial adversity (high job strain; few close relationships). Symptoms of depression post-retirement were measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale.
RESULTS: After adjustment for sociodemographic and health-related covariates at baseline and follow-up, there were strong associations between midlife adversities and post-retirement depressive symptoms: low occupational position (odds ratio [OR]: 1.70, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.15-2.51), poor standard of living (OR: 2.37, 95% CI: 1.66-3.39), high job strain (OR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.09-2.14), and few close relationships (OR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.12-2.03). The strength of the associations between socioeconomic, psychosocial, work-related, or non-work related exposures and depressive symptoms was similar.
CONCLUSIONS: Robust associations from observational data suggest that several socioeconomic and psychosocial risk factors for symptoms of depression post-retirement can be detected already in midlife.
|Alternate Journal||Am J Geriatr Psychiatry|
|PubMed Central ID||PMC4270962|
|Grant List||RG/13/2/30098 / / British Heart Foundation / United Kingdom |
R01 HL036310 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
K013351 / / Medical Research Council / United Kingdom
R01 AG034454 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
MR/K026992/1 / / Medical Research Council / United Kingdom
MR/K013351/1 / / Medical Research Council / United Kingdom
R01 AG013196 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
/ / Wellcome Trust / United Kingdom
R01AG034454 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
R01HL036310 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
R01AG013196 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States