This article reviews research on children's self-regulation, including cognitive or behavioral aspects of regulation, which are important for a range of social and cognitive outcomes. Theoretical bases and definitions of self-regulation are reviewed along with links to important indicators of interest in childhood and early adulthood. Important individual and contextual factors influencing the development of self-regulation are also described. The measurement of self-regulation is reviewed, including examples of directly-assessed and questionnaire-based measures of cognitive and behavioral self-regulation. Implications for practice are described, including school-based interventions and interventions in adulthood. Finally, future directions in the field of self-regulation research are discussed.