TitleThe relationship between HAART use and employment for HIV-positive individuals: an empirical analysis and policy outlook.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2005
AuthorsBernell, S, Shinogle, JAnn
JournalHealth policy (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
Date Published2005 Feb
KeywordsUnited States

Objective: This study jointly analyzes the determinants of the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) along with the determinants of employment status for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals. Methods: Data from the HIV Cost and Services Utilization Study (HCSUS) were analyzed using a bivariate probit model. HSCUS collected data on 2864 individuals in 180 clinics, hospitals and private practices in 28 urban areas and 24 clusters of rural counties in the United States. We used data from the baseline interview to categorize individuals as employed or unemployed and for the determination of HAART use. Results: The empirical results suggest that individuals taking HAART have an increased likelihood of working and that individuals with private health insurance are more likely to use HAART compared to individuals with public health insurance coverage or no coverage. Conclusions: Due to the fact that employment of HIV-positive is directly related to HAART use, policymakers need to look to the private health insurance industry and public program to increase access to HAART. Suggested models for consideration are mandating insurance benefits and ADAP expansion.