TitlePhytol and its metabolites phytanic and pristanic acids for risk of cancer: current evidence and future directions.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuthorsBobe, G, Zhang, Z, Kopp, R, Garzotto, M, Shannon, J, Takata, Y
JournalEur J Cancer Prev
Date Published08/2019
ISSN1473-5709
Abstract
 

This review summarizes the current evidence on the potential role of phytol, a microbial metabolite of chlorophyl A, and its metabolites, phytanic and pristanic acids, in carcinogenesis. Primary food sources in Western diets are the nut skin for phytol and lipids in dairy, beef and fish for its metabolites. Phytol and its metabolites gained interest as dietary compounds for cancer prevention because, as natural ligands of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α and -γ and retinoid X receptor, phytol and its metabolites have provided some evidence in cell culture studies and limited evidence in animal models of anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-metabolic-syndrome properties at physiological concentrations. However, there may be a narrow range of efficacy, because phytol and its metabolites at supra-physiological concentrations can cause in vitro cytotoxicity in non-cancer cells and can cause morbidity and mortality in animal models. In human studies, evidence for a role of phytol and its metabolites in cancer prevention is currently limited and inconclusive. In short, phytol and its metabolites are potential dietary compounds for cancer prevention, assuming the challenges in preventing cytotoxicity in non-cancer cells and animal models and understanding phytol metabolism can be mitigated.

DOI10.1097/CEJ.0000000000000534
Alternate JournalEur. J. Cancer Prev.
PubMed ID31436750