|Title||Passive smoking assessed by salivary cotinine and self-report in relation to cause-specific mortality: 17-year follow-up of study participants in the UK Health and Lifestyle Survey.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2014|
|Authors||Batty, GD, Gale, CR, Jefferis, B, Kvaavik, E|
|Journal||J Epidemiol Community Health|
|Date Published||2014 Dec|
|Keywords||Adult, Cotinine, Female, Follow-Up Studies, Health Surveys, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Mortality, Saliva, Self Report, Tobacco Smoke Pollution, United Kingdom|
BACKGROUND: Evidence that passive smoking is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and selected cancers is largely derived from studies in which this exposure is self-reported. Objective assessment using biochemical techniques may yield a more accurate estimate of risk, although each approach has its strengths and weaknesses. We examined the association of salivary cotinine, a widely utilised biomarker for passive smoking, and self-reported passive smoking in the home, with mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease and all cancers combined.
METHODS: In 1992, investigators on the UK Health and Lifestyle Survey collected data on salivary cotinine, self-reported smoking (direct and passive) and a range of covariates in 3731 men and women aged 25 years and over. Mortality was ascertained using linkage to national death records.
RESULTS: Analyses were based on 2523 individuals (1433 [57%] women) who classified themselves as non-smokers (never and former). Seventeen years of follow-up gave rise to 588 deaths (253 from cardiovascular disease and 146 from cancer). In men, adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for the association between cotinine levels (1.3-15.0 [high] vs ≤0.3 [low] ng/mL) and the various mortality outcomes were weak for total mortality (HR; 95% CI: 1.22; 0.91 to 1.64) and cardiovascular disease (1.25; 0.78 to 1.99) and absent for all cancers combined (1.10; 0.61 to 2.00). Corresponding associations were generally stronger when self-reported passive smoking (some vs none) was the exposure of interest: 1.53 (1.12 to 2.08), 1.88 (1.20 to 2.96) and 1.58 (0.85 to 2.93). The pattern of association for women in both sets of analyses was less consistent.
CONCLUSIONS: In men in the present study, compared with our biochemical marker of passive smoking, cotinine, mortality was generally more consistently associated with self-reported passive smoking.
|Alternate Journal||J Epidemiol Community Health|
|Grant List||MC_UP_A620_1015 / / Medical Research Council / United Kingdom |
MC_UU_12011/2 / / Medical Research Council / United Kingdom
MR/K026992/1 / / Medical Research Council / United Kingdom