TitleMuscle dysmorphia, gender role stress, and sociocultural influences: an exploratory study.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2011
AuthorsTucker, R, Watkins, PLou, Cardinal, BJ
JournalResearch quarterly for exercise and sport
Date Published2011 Jun
KeywordsYoung Adult

Our study explored the contribution of gender role stress (GRS) and sociocultural appearance demands to symptoms of muscle dysmorphia (MD) in a college sample of 219 women and 154 men. For women, five GRS subscales, sociocultural appearance demands, age, and frequency of aerobic exercise predicted MD symptoms (model R2 = .33; F(8,210) = 12.81, p < . 001); for men, only one GRS subscale, age, and sociocultural appearance demands predicted MD symptoms (model R2 = .40; F(3,150) = 9.52, p < .001). Post hoc analyses revealed that a small number of items explained a substantial portion of the variation, suggesting that MD may be more related to specific perceptions of pressure to attain an attractive body than to global gender role stress.