TitleLower extremity kinematics and ground reaction forces after prophylactic lace-up ankle bracing.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2008
AuthorsDiStefano, LJ, Padua, DA, Brown, CN, Guskiewicz, KM
JournalJ Athl Train
Volume43
Issue3
Pagination234-41
Date Published2008 May-Jun
ISSN1938-162X
KeywordsAdult, Ankle Injuries, Biomechanical Phenomena, Braces, Female, Humans, Lower Extremity, Male, Range of Motion, Articular, Sports Medicine, Time Factors
Abstract
 

CONTEXT: Long-term effects of ankle bracing on lower extremity kinematics and kinetics are unknown. Ankle motion restriction may negatively affect the body's ability to attenuate ground reaction forces (GRFs).

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the immediate and long-term effects of ankle bracing on lower extremity kinematics and GRFs during a jump landing.

DESIGN: Experimental mixed model (2 [group] x 2 [brace] x 2 [time]) with repeated measures.

SETTING: Sports medicine research laboratory.

PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: A total of 37 healthy subjects were assigned randomly to either the intervention (n = 11 men, 8 women; age = 19.63 +/- 0.72 years, height = 176.05 +/- 10.58 cm, mass = 71.50 +/- 13.15 kg) or control group (n = 11 men, 7 women; age = 19.94 +/- 1.44 years, height = 179.15 +/- 8.81 cm, mass = 74.10 +/- 10.33 kg).

INTERVENTION(S): The intervention group wore braces on both ankles and the control group did not wear braces during all recreational activities for an 8-week period.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Initial ground contact angles, maximum joint angles, time to reach maximum joint angles, and joint range of motion for sagittal-plane knee and ankle motion were measured during a jump-landing task. Peak vertical GRF and the time to reach peak vertical GRF were assessed also.

RESULTS: While participants were wearing the brace, ankle plantar flexion at initial ground contact (brace = 35 degrees +/- 13 degrees , no brace = 38 degrees +/- 15 degrees , P = .024), maximum dorsiflexion (brace = 21 degrees +/- 7 degrees , no brace = 22 degrees +/- 6 degrees , P = .04), dorsiflexion range of motion (brace = 56 degrees +/- 14 degrees , no brace = 59 degrees +/- 16 degrees , P = .001), and knee flexion range of motion (brace = 79 degrees +/- 16 degrees , no brace = 82 degrees +/- 16 degrees , P = .036) decreased, whereas knee flexion at initial ground contact increased (brace = 12 degrees +/- 9 degrees , no brace = 9 degrees +/- 9 degrees , P = .0001). Wearing the brace for 8 weeks did not affect any of the outcome measures, and the brace caused no changes in vertical GRFs (P > .05).

CONCLUSIONS: Although ankle sagittal-plane motion was restricted with the brace, knee flexion upon landing increased and peak vertical GRF did not change. The type of lace-up brace used in this study appeared to restrict ankle motion without increasing knee extension or vertical GRFs and without changing kinematics or kinetics over time.

DOI10.4085/1062-6050-43.3.234
Alternate JournalJ Athl Train
PubMed ID18523572
PubMed Central IDPMC2386429