|Title||Individual differences in hyperlipidemia and vitamin E status in response to chronic alcohol self-administration in cynomolgus monkeys.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2011|
|Authors||Lebold, KM, Grant, KA, Freeman, WM, Wiren, KM, Miller, GW, Kiley, C, Leonard, SW, Traber, M|
|Journal||Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research|
|Date Published||2011 Mar|
BACKGROUND: Chronic ethanol self-administration induces oxidative stress and exacerbates lipid peroxidation. α-Tocopherol is a potent lipid antioxidant and vitamin that is dependent upon lipoprotein transport for tissue delivery. METHODS: To evaluate the extent to which vitamin E status is deranged by excessive alcohol consumption, monkeys voluntarily drinking ethanol (1.36 to 3.98 g/kg/d for 19 months, n = 11) were compared with nondrinkers (n = 5, control). RESULTS: Three alcohol-drinking animals developed hyperlipidemia with plasma triglyceride levels (1.8 ± 0.9 mM) double those of normolipidemic (NL) drinkers (0.6 ± 0.2) and controls (0.6 ± 0.3, p < 0.05); elevated plasma cholesterol (3.6 ± 0.5 mM) compared with NL drinkers (2.3 ± 0.2, p < 0.05) and controls (2.9 ± 0.3); and lower plasma α-tocopherol per triglycerides (14 ± 6 mmol/mol) than controls (27 ± 8) and NL drinkers (23 ± 6, p < 0.05). Hyperlipidemic monkey liver α-tocopherol (47 ± 15 nmol/g) was lower than NL drinkers (65 ± 13) and controls (70 ± 15, p = 0.080), as was adipose α-tocopherol (84 ± 37 nmol/g) compared with controls (224 ± 118) and NL drinkers (285 ± 234, p < 0.05). Plasma apolipoprotein (apo) CIII increased compared to baseline at both 12 and 19 months in the normolipidemic (p = 0.0016 and p = 0.0028, respectively) and in the hyperlipidemic drinkers (p < 0.05 and p < 0.05, respectively). Plasma apo H concentrations at 19 months were elevated hyperlipidemics (p < 0.05) relative to concentrations in control animals. C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation, was increased compared to baseline at both the 12- and 19-month time points in the normolipidemic (p = 0.005 and p = 0.0153, respectively) and hyperlipidemic drinkers (p = 0.016 and p = 0.0201, respectively). CONCLUSION: A subset of alcohol-drinking monkeys showed a predisposition to alcohol-induced hyperlipidemia. The defect in lipid metabolism resulted in lower plasma α-tocopherol per triglycerides and depleted adipose tissue α-tocopherol, and thus decreased vitamin E status.