TitleIncidence of Metabolic Risk Factors Among Healthy Obese Adults: 20-Year Follow-Up.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsBell, JA, Hamer, M, Batty, GD, Singh-Manoux, A, Sabia, S, Kivimäki, M
JournalJ Am Coll Cardiol
Date Published08/2015
KeywordsAdult, Blood Glucose, Cohort Studies, Female, Follow-Up Studies, Humans, Incidence, Insulin Resistance, Male, Metabolic Syndrome, Middle Aged, Obesity, Risk Factors

There is growing evidence that obese adults without metabolic risk factor clustering (the so-called “healthy obese”) progress to unhealthy obesity over time (1). However, the pathophysiological changes underlying the long-term transition into an unhealthy obese state have not been well characterized. To inform clinical management of healthy obesity, we aimed to identify the metabolic risk factors responsible for this transition, as well as the timing of their onset.

Repeat clinical data were drawn from the Whitehall II cohort study of British adults. We grouped participants as normal-weight (body mass index [BMI] 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2), overweight (BMI 25 to 29 kg/m2), or obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m2), and as healthy (2) if they were free of any the following characteristics: high-density lipoprotein cholesterol <1.03 mmol/l (men) and <1.29 mmol/l (women); blood pressure ≥130/85 mm Hg or antihypertension medication use; fasting plasma glucose ≥5.6 mmol/l or diabetic medication use; triglycerides ≥1.7 mmol/l; and homeostatic model–assessed insulin resistance >2.83 (baseline 90th percentile value). Participants provided written informed consent. The University College London research ethics committee provided ethical approval.

Alternate JournalJ. Am. Coll. Cardiol.
PubMed ID26271072
PubMed Central IDPMC4534345
Grant ListRE/10/005/28296 / / British Heart Foundation / United Kingdom
R01 HL036310 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
R01 AG034454 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
R01 AG013196 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
R01HL36310 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
R01AG034454 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
MR/K013351/1 / / Medical Research Council / United Kingdom
R01AG013196 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States