TitleGene Expression of CRAL_TRIO Family Proteins modulated by Vitamin E Deficiency in Zebrafish (Danio Rerio).
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2021
AuthorsWatt, AT, Head, B, Leonard, SW, Tanguay, RL, Traber, M
JournalJ Nutr Biochem
Date Published06/2021


  • Alpha-tocopherol transfer protein (α-TTP) is a highly conserved protein
  • α-TTP is a member of CRAL_TRIO, a lipid binding protein family
  • Vitamin E deficiency causes lipid peroxidation
  • Gene expression responses show impacts to phospholipid and choline metabolism


An evaluation of the impact of vitamin E deficiency on expression of the alpha-tocopherol transfer protein (α-TTP) and related CRAL_TRIO genes was undertaken using livers from adult zebrafish based on the hypothesis that increased lipid peroxidation would modulate gene expression. Zebrafish were fed either a vitamin E sufficient (E+) or deficient (E-) diet for 9 months, then fish were euthanized, and livers were harvested. Livers from the E+ relative to E- fish contained 40-times more α-tocopherol (P <0.0001) and one fourth the malondialdehyde (P = 0.0153). RNA was extracted from E+ and E- livers, then subject to evaluation of gene expression of ttpa and other genes of the CRAL_TRIO family, genes of antioxidant markers, and genes related to lipid metabolism. Ttpa expression was not altered by vitamin E status. However, one member of the CRAL_TRIO family, tyrosine-protein phosphatase non-receptor type 9 gene (ptpn9a), showed a 2.4-fold increase (P = 0.029) in E- relative to E+ livers. Further, we identified that the gene for choline kinase alpha (chka) showed a 3.0-fold increase (P = 0.010) in E- livers. These outcomes are consistent with our previous findings that show vitamin E deficiency increased lipid peroxidation causing increases in phospholipid turnover.

Alternate JournalJ Nutr Biochem
PubMed ID34119630