TitleGender Differences in the Combined Effects of Cardiovascular Disease and Osteoarthritis on Progression to Functional Impairment in Older Mexican Americans.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsHaan, MN, Lee, A, Odden, MC, Aiello, AE, To, TMy, Neuhaus, JM
JournalJ Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci
Date Published2016 Aug
KeywordsActivities of Daily Living, Aged, Aging, Body Mass Index, Cardiovascular Diseases, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, Disease Progression, Female, Follow-Up Studies, Humans, Incidence, Longitudinal Studies, Male, Mexican Americans, Middle Aged, Obesity, Osteoarthritis, Prevalence, Risk Factors, Sex Distribution, Surveys and Questionnaires, United States

BACKGROUND: Comorbidity (COM) is an important issue in aging. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and osteoarthritis separately and together may modify the trajectories of functional decline. This analysis examines whether specific and unrelated COMs influence functional change differently and vary by gender.

METHODS: A cohort study of 1,789 (aged 60 years and older) Mexican Americans was followed annually for up to 10 years. We created four groups of COM (CVD alone, lower body osteoarthritis alone [OA], neither, or both). We employed mixed effects Poisson models with Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) as the outcome. We tested whether the association between COM and decline in functional status differed by gender.

RESULTS: IADL impairments in those with CVD, OA, or both were significantly higher at baseline and increased more rapidly over time compared to those with neither condition. Compared to women with no COM, the number of IADL impairments in women with CVD alone were 1.36 times greater, with OA were 1.35 times greater, and both conditions were 1.26 times greater. Compared to men with no COM, IADL impairments in men with CVD alone were 1.15 times greater, OA alone were 1.12 times greater, and both were 1.26 times greater.

CONCLUSIONS: Over time, the influence of COM on functional decline differs by specific combinations of COM and by gender. Aggregate COM scales obscure the biological and temporal heterogeneity in the effects of COM. Time-dependent-specific COMs better assess the development of impairment. Women experience a higher burden of functional impairment due to COM than men.

Alternate JournalJ. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PubMed ID26893469
PubMed Central IDPMC4945888
Grant ListR01 DK060753 / DK / NIDDK NIH HHS / United States
K01 AG039387 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
R03 AG033751 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
R01 AG012975 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
P2C HD050924 / HD / NICHD NIH HHS / United States