TitleGender differences in behavioral regulation in four societies: The United States, Taiwan, South Korea, and China
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2013
AuthorsWanless, SB, McClelland, MM, Lan, X, Son, S-H, Cameron, CE, Morrison, FJ, Chen, F-M, Chen, J-L, Li, S, Lee, K, Sung, M
JournalEarly Childhood Research Quarterly
Pagination621 - 633
Date Published07/2013

The current study investigates gender differences in behavioral regulation in four societies: the United States, Taiwan, South Korea, and China. Directly assessed individual behavioral regulation (Head–Toes–Knees–Shoulders, HTKS), teacher-rated classroom behavioral regulation (Child Behavior Rating Scale, CBRS) and a battery of school readiness assessments (mathematics, vocabulary, and early literacy) were used with 814 young children (ages 3–6 years). Results showed that girls in the United States had significantly higher individual behavioral regulation than boys, but there were no significant gender differences in any Asian societies. In contrast, teachers in Taiwan, South Korea, as well as the United States rated girls as significantly higher than boys on classroom behavioral regulation. In addition, for both genders, individual and classroom behavioral regulation were related to many aspects of school readiness in all societies for girls and boys. Universal and culturally specific findings and their implications are discussed.