TitleGender and emotion: Theory, findings, and context
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsBrody, LR, Hall, JA, Stokes, LR
Book TitleHandbook of emotions

Gender differences in emotion are widely documented, but are often inconsistent across personality, social, cultural, and situational variables, as well as types of emotional processes, specific quality of emotions, and measurement or task characteristics.  This is not surprising, given the multiple processes involved in the umbrella term “emotion,” including experiencing, expressing, perceiving, interpreting, and regulating emotions; and the multiple modes of assessing these processes (e.g., physiological arousal, self-report, observational data); as well as the complexity of gender itself.  Each type of emotional process is influenced by interpersonal, situational, personality, biological, cognitive, motivational, and cultural factors, as well as interactions among them.  The most useful and sophisticated research honors this complexity and attempts to understand the contexts in which gender differences in emotion occur and the moderating and mediating variables that can provide clues as to their nature and etiology.