|Title||Effects of error rates and target sizes on neck and shoulder biomechanical loads during augmented reality interactions.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2023|
|Authors||Kia, K, Hwang, J, Kim, JH|
Augmented reality (AR) interactions have been associated with increased biomechanical loads on the neck and shoulders. To provide a better understanding of the factors that may impact such biomechanical loads, this repeated-measures laboratory study evaluated the effects of error rates and target sizes on neck and shoulder biomechanical loads during two standardized AR tasks (omni-directional pointing and cube placing). Twenty participants performed the two AR tasks with different error rates and target sizes. During the tasks, angles, moments, and muscle activity in the neck and shoulders were measured. The results showed that the target sizes and error rates significantly affected angles, moments, and muscle activity in the neck and shoulder regions. Specifically, the presence of errors increased neck extension, shoulder flexion angles and associated moments. Muscle activity in the neck (splenius capitis) and shoulder (anterior and medial deltoids) also increased when the errors were introduced. Moreover, interacting with larger targets resulted in greater neck extension moments and shoulder abduction angles along with higher muscle activity in the splenius capitis and upper trapezius muscles. These findings indicate the importance of reducing errors and incorporating appropriate target sizes in the AR interfaces to minimize risks of musculoskeletal discomfort and injuries in the neck and shoulders.
|Alternate Journal||Appl Ergon|