TitleDifferential Effect of Endurance Training on Mitochondrial Protein Damage, Degradation, and Acetylation in the Context of Aging.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsJohnson, ML, Irving, BA, Lanza, IR, Vendelbo, MH, Konopka, AR, Robinson, MM, Henderson, GC, Klaus, KA, Morse, DM, Heppelmann, C, H Bergen, R, Dasari, S, Schimke, JM, Jakaitis, DR, K Nair, S
JournalJ Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci
Date Published2015 Nov
KeywordsAcetylation, Adolescent, Adult, Age Factors, Aged, Exercise, Female, Humans, Male, Mitochondria, Muscle, Mitochondrial Proteins, Muscle, Skeletal, Oxidative Stress, Physical Endurance, Proteolysis, Sedentary Lifestyle, Young Adult

Acute aerobic exercise increases reactive oxygen species and could potentially damage proteins, but exercise training (ET) enhances mitochondrial respiration irrespective of age. Here, we report a differential impact of ET on protein quality in young and older participants. Using mass spectrometry we measured oxidative damage to skeletal muscle proteins before and after 8 weeks of ET and find that young but not older participants reduced oxidative damage to both total skeletal muscle and mitochondrial proteins. Young participants showed higher total and mitochondrial derived semitryptic peptides and 26S proteasome activity indicating increased protein degradation. ET however, increased the activity of the endogenous antioxidants in older participants. ET also increased skeletal muscle content of the mitochondrial deacetylase SIRT3 in both groups. A reduction in the acetylation of isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 was observed following ET that may counteract the effect of acute oxidative stress. In conclusion aging is associated with an inability to improve skeletal muscle and mitochondrial protein quality in response to ET by increasing degradation of damaged proteins. ET does however increase muscle and mitochondrial antioxidant capacity in older individuals, which provides increased buffering from the acute oxidative effects of exercise.

Alternate JournalJ. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PubMed ID25504576
PubMed Central IDPMC4612384
Grant ListR01 DK059615 / DK / NIDDK NIH HHS / United States
KL2TR000136-07 / TR / NCATS NIH HHS / United States
T32 DK007198 / DK / NIDDK NIH HHS / United States
UL1 TR000135 / TR / NCATS NIH HHS / United States
KL2 TR000136 / TR / NCATS NIH HHS / United States
KL2 RR024151 / RR / NCRR NIH HHS / United States
U24 DK100469 / DK / NIDDK NIH HHS / United States
KL2-RR024151 / RR / NCRR NIH HHS / United States
AG09531 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
T32 DK007352 / DK / NIDDK NIH HHS / United States
R01 AG009531 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States