TitleDietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and hepatic gene expression.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication1999
AuthorsJump, DB, Thelen, A, Mater, M
JournalLipids
Volume34 Suppl
PaginationS209-12
Date Published1999
ISSN0024-4201
KeywordsAnimals, Cells, Cultured, Dietary Fats, Unsaturated, Gene Expression Regulation, Liver, Mice, Mice, Knockout, Microbodies, Models, Biological, Rats, Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear, Recombinant Fusion Proteins, Transcription Factors, Transfection
Abstract

Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have profound effects on hepatic gene transcription leading to significant changes in lipid metabolism. PUFA rapidly suppress transcription of genes encoding specific lipogenic and glycolytic enzymes and induce genes encoding specific peroxisomal and cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. Using the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR alpha)-null mouse, we showed that dietary PUFA induction of acyl CoA oxidase (AOX) and CYP4A2 require PPAR alpha. However, PPAR alpha is not required for the PUFA-mediated suppression of fatty acid synthase (FAS), S14, or L-pyruvate kinase (L-PK). Studies in primary rat hepatocytes and cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes showed that metabolites of 20:4n-6, like prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), suppress mRNA encoding FAS, S14, and L-PK through a Gi/Go-coupled signal transduction cascade. In contrast to adipocytes, 20:4n-6-mediated suppression of lipogenic gene expression in hepatic parenchymal cells does not require cyclooxygenase. Transfection analysis of S14CAT fusion genes in primary hepatocytes shows that peroxisome proliferator-activated PPAR alpha acts on the thyroid hormone response elements (-2.8/-2.5 kb). In contrast, both PGE2 and 20:4n-6 regulate factors that act on the proximal promoter (-150/-80 bp) region, respectively. In conclusion, PUFA affects hepatic gene transcription through at least three distinct mechanisms: (i) a PPAR-dependent pathway, (ii) a prostanoid pathway, and (iii) a PPAR and prostanoid-independent pathway. PUFA regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism involves an integration of these multiple pathways.

Alternate JournalLipids
PubMed ID10419152
Grant ListR01 DK043220 / DK / NIDDK NIH HHS / United States
DK 43220 / DK / NIDDK NIH HHS / United States