|Title||A cross-sectional analysis of ambient fine particulate matter (PM) exposure and haemoglobin levels in children aged under 5 years living in 36 countries.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2023|
|Authors||Odo, DB, Yang, IA, Dey, S, Hammer, MS, van Donkelaar, A, Martin, RV, Dong, G-H, Yang, B-Y, Hystad, P, Knibbs, LD|
Low haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations and anaemia in children have adverse effects on development and functioning, some of which may have consequences in later life. Exposure to ambient air pollution is reported to be associated with anaemia, but there is little evidence specific to low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where childhood anaemia prevalence is greatest. We aimed to determine if long-term ambient fine particulate matter (≤2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter [PM]) exposure was associated with Hb levels and the prevalence of anaemia in children aged <5 years living in 36 LMICs. We used Demographic and Health Survey data, collected between 2010 and 2019, which included blood Hb measurements. Satellite-derived estimates of annual average PM was the main exposure variable, which was linked to children's area of residence. Anaemia was defined according to standard World Health Organization guidelines (Hb < 11 g/dL). The association of PM with Hb levels and anaemia prevalence was examined using multivariable linear and logistic regression models, respectively. We examined whether the effects of ambient PM were modified by a child's sex and age, household wealth index, and urban/rural place of residence. Models were adjusted for relevant covariates, including other outdoor pollutants and household cooking fuel. The study included 154,443 children, of which 89,904 (58.2%) were anaemic. The country-level prevalence of anaemia ranged from 15.8% to 87.9%. Mean PM exposure was 33.0 (±21.6) μg/m. The adjusted model showed that a 10 μg/m increase in annual PM concentration was associated with greater odds of anaemia (OR = 1.098 95% CI: 1.087, 1.109). The same increase in PM was associated with a decrease in average Hb levels of 0.075 g/dL (95% CI: 0.081, 0.068). There was evidence of effect modification by household wealth index and place of residence, with greater adverse effects in children from lower wealth quintiles and children in rural areas. Exposure to annual PM was cross-sectionally associated with decreased blood Hb levels, and greater risk of anaemia, in children aged <5 years living in 36 LMICs.
|Alternate Journal||Environ Res|