TitleComparisons of three nicotine dependence scales in a multiethnic sample of young adult menthol and non-menthol smokers.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsFagan, P, Pohkrel, P, Herzog, T, Pagano, I, Vallone, D, Trinidad, DR, Sakuma, K-L, Sterling, K, Fryer, CS, Moolchan, E
JournalDrug and alcohol dependence
Date Published2015 Apr 1

BACKGROUND: Few studies have compared nicotine dependence among menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers in a multiethnic sample of young adult daily cigarette smokers. This study examines differences in nicotine dependence among menthol and non-menthol daily smokers and the associations of nicotine dependence with quitting behaviors among Native Hawaiian, Filipino, and White cigarette smokers aged 18-35. METHODS: Craigslist.org, newspaper advertisements, and peer-to-peer referrals were used to recruit daily smokers (n=186) into a lab-based study. Nicotine dependence was assessed using the Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND), the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS), and the brief Wisconsin Inventory for Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM). Multiple regression analyses were used to examine differences in nicotine dependence between menthol and non-menthol smokers and the relationship between each nicotine dependence scale with self-efficacy to quit, quit attempt in the past 12 months, and number of attempts. RESULTS: Menthol smokers were more likely to report difficulty refraining from smoking in places where forbidden (p=.04) and had higher scores on social/environmental goads subscale of the WISDM (p=.0005). Two-way interaction models of the FTND and menthol status showed that menthol smokers with higher levels of dependence were more likely to have tried to quit smoking in the past 12 months (p=.02), but were less likely to have had multiple quit attempts (p=.01). CONCLUSIONS: Components of the FTND and WISDM distinguish levels of dependence between menthol and non-menthol smokers. Higher FTND scores were associated with having a quit attempt, but fewer quit attempts among menthol smokers.