TitleCommon mental disorders and mortality in the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study: comparing the General Health Questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2013
AuthorsHannah, MKathleen, Batty, GD, Benzeval, M
JournalJ Epidemiol Community Health
Date Published2013 Jul
KeywordsAdult, Anxiety Disorders, Cause of Death, Cohort Studies, Depressive Disorder, Female, Health Status Indicators, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Mortality, Proportional Hazards Models, Psychiatric Status Rating Scales, Scotland, Surveys and Questionnaires

BACKGROUND: While various measures of common mental disorders (CMD) have been found to be associated with mortality, a comparison of how different measures predict mortality may improve our understanding of the association. This paper compares how the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the 30-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30) predict all cause and cause-specific mortality.

METHODS: Data on 2547 men and women from two cohorts, aged approximately 39 and 55 years, from the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study who were followed up for mortality over an average of 18.9 (SD 5.0) years. Scores were calculated for HADS depression (HADS-D), HADS Anxiety (HADS-A) and GHQ-30. Cox Proportional Hazards Models were used to determine how each CMD measure predicted mortality.

RESULTS: After adjusting for serious physical illness, smoking, social class, alcohol, obesity, pulse rate and living alone, HRs (95% CI) per SD increase in score for all-cause mortality were: 1.15 (1.07 to 1.25) for HADS-D; 1.13 (1.04 to 1.23) for GHQ-30 and 1.05 (0.96 to 1.14) for HADS-A. After the same adjustments, cardiovascular disease mortality was also related to HADS-D (HR 1.24 (1.07 to 1.43)), to GHQ-30 (HR 1.24 (1.11 to 1.40)) and to HADS-A (HR 1.15 (1.01 to 1.32)); respiratory mortality to GHQ-30 (HR 1.33 (1.13 to 1.55)) and mortality from other causes, excluding injuries, to HADS-D (HR 1.28 (1.05 to 1.55)).

CONCLUSIONS: There were associations between CMD and both all-cause and cause-specific mortality which were broadly similar for GHQ-30 and HADS-D and were still present after adjustment for important confounders and mediators.

Alternate JournalJ Epidemiol Community Health
PubMed ID23543730
PubMed Central IDPMC3686266
Grant ListMC_A540_5TK10 / / Medical Research Council / United Kingdom
MC_A540_53462 / / Medical Research Council / United Kingdom
MR/K026992/1 / / Medical Research Council / United Kingdom
MC_UP_A540_1021 / / Medical Research Council / United Kingdom
/ / Wellcome Trust / United Kingdom
MC_UU_12017/7 / / Medical Research Council / United Kingdom