|Title||Common mental disorders and mortality in the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study: comparing the General Health Questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2013|
|Authors||Hannah, MKathleen, Batty, GD, Benzeval, M|
|Journal||J Epidemiol Community Health|
|Date Published||2013 Jul|
|Keywords||Adult, Anxiety Disorders, Cause of Death, Cohort Studies, Depressive Disorder, Female, Health Status Indicators, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Mortality, Proportional Hazards Models, Psychiatric Status Rating Scales, Scotland, Surveys and Questionnaires|
BACKGROUND: While various measures of common mental disorders (CMD) have been found to be associated with mortality, a comparison of how different measures predict mortality may improve our understanding of the association. This paper compares how the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the 30-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30) predict all cause and cause-specific mortality.
METHODS: Data on 2547 men and women from two cohorts, aged approximately 39 and 55 years, from the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study who were followed up for mortality over an average of 18.9 (SD 5.0) years. Scores were calculated for HADS depression (HADS-D), HADS Anxiety (HADS-A) and GHQ-30. Cox Proportional Hazards Models were used to determine how each CMD measure predicted mortality.
RESULTS: After adjusting for serious physical illness, smoking, social class, alcohol, obesity, pulse rate and living alone, HRs (95% CI) per SD increase in score for all-cause mortality were: 1.15 (1.07 to 1.25) for HADS-D; 1.13 (1.04 to 1.23) for GHQ-30 and 1.05 (0.96 to 1.14) for HADS-A. After the same adjustments, cardiovascular disease mortality was also related to HADS-D (HR 1.24 (1.07 to 1.43)), to GHQ-30 (HR 1.24 (1.11 to 1.40)) and to HADS-A (HR 1.15 (1.01 to 1.32)); respiratory mortality to GHQ-30 (HR 1.33 (1.13 to 1.55)) and mortality from other causes, excluding injuries, to HADS-D (HR 1.28 (1.05 to 1.55)).
CONCLUSIONS: There were associations between CMD and both all-cause and cause-specific mortality which were broadly similar for GHQ-30 and HADS-D and were still present after adjustment for important confounders and mediators.
|Alternate Journal||J Epidemiol Community Health|
|PubMed Central ID||PMC3686266|
|Grant List||MC_A540_5TK10 / / Medical Research Council / United Kingdom |
MC_A540_53462 / / Medical Research Council / United Kingdom
MR/K026992/1 / / Medical Research Council / United Kingdom
MC_UP_A540_1021 / / Medical Research Council / United Kingdom
/ / Wellcome Trust / United Kingdom
MC_UU_12017/7 / / Medical Research Council / United Kingdom