|Title||Association Among Depression, Physical Functioning, and Hearing and Vision Impairment in Adults With Diabetes|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2013|
|Authors||Loprinzi, PD, Smit, E, Pariser, G|
|Pagination||6 - 15|
Objective: Individuals with diabetes may be at an increased risk for depression given the potential diabetes-induced link between sensory impairment, physical functioning, and depression. As a result, the purposes of this study were 1) to examine the association between sensory impairment and depression among adults of all ages with diabetes, 2) to examine whether dual sensory impairment and physical functioning are independently associated with depression, and 3) to examine the association between physical functioning and sensory impairment. Design and Methods: Data from the 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used in the present study and, after exclusions, 567 participants (18–85 years of age) with evidence of diabetes constituted the analytic sample. Sensory impairment (vision and hearing), physical functioning, and depression were reported from questionnaires. Results: After controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, comorbidity index, smoking, BMI, physical activity, and glycemic control, dual sensory impairment (odds ratio [OR] 7.48, 95% CI 2.09–26.71) and physical dysfunction (unable to perform activities; OR 3.21, 95% CI 1.28–8.08) were associated with increased depression symptoms. After adjustments, participants who were unable to perform activities had a 1.73 (95% CI 0.94–3.19, P = 0.07), 2.78 (0.78–9.87, P = 0.11), and 2.21 (0.50–9.68, P = 0.29) nonsignificant greater odds, respectively, of having hearing, vision, and dual sensory impairment than participants who were able to perform activities. Conclusion: Adults with diabetes who have dual sensory impairment and physical functioning limitations are more likely to report depression symptoms. This highlights the importance of preventing and improving sensory impairments, physical functioning, and depression among adults with diabetes.