Contracted Slots Pilot Program Evaluation: Executive SummaryContracted Slots Pilot Program Evaluation: Executive Summary

Authors(s): Roberta B. Weber and Deana Grobe
Published: November 2015

Oregon launched the three-year Contracted Slots Pilot program in 2012 with the threefold goal of increasing stability of low-income children in high quality programs, supporting employment stability of their parents, and increasing the financial stability of high quality early learning providers.  This executive summary captures the highlights of the final evaluation study findings.

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    Contracted Slots Pilot Program Evaluation: Final Report | Oregon Child Care Research Partnership (OCCRP)Contracted Slots Pilot Program Evaluation: Final Report

    Authors(s): Roberta B. Weber and Deana Grobe
    Published: November 2015

    Oregon launched the three-year Contracted Slots Pilot program in 2012 with the threefold goal of increasing stability of low-income children in high quality programs, supporting employment stability of their parents, and increasing the financial stability of high quality early learning providers.  This final report captures and integrates findings from the surveys, interviews, and analysis of administrative data sets.

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      Director's Survey for Contracted Slots Pilot Program: At the End of Year 1

      (Survey Report)Director's Survey for Contracted Slots Pilot Program: At the End of Year 1

      Authors(s): Deana Grobe and Roberta B. Weber
      Published: December 2014

      Oregon launched the three-year Contracted Slots Pilot program in 2012 with the threefold goal of increasing stability of low-income children in high quality programs, supporting employment stability of their parents, and increasing the financial stability of high quality early learning providers.  Directors of participating early learning programs were surveyed at the beginning and end of the Pilot’s first year.  The goal was to document their perceptions of the benefits and disadvantages for children and families as well as programs before launch and after a year of experience.  This report captures perceptions at the end of year 1.   Providers shared their thoughts on both the challenges as well as the impact of participation on enrollment and financial stability.  The report also captures changes in perceptions over the two points in time.

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      Initial Director's Survey for Contracted Slots Program

      (Survey Report)Initial Director's Survey for Contracted Slots Program

      Authors(s): Deana Grobe and Roberta B. Weber
      Published: May 2013

      Directors of early learning programs participating in Oregon’s three-year Contracted Slots Pilot program were surveyed at the time the program was launched in the late summer of 2012.  The Pilot had a threefold goal of increasing stability of low-income children in high quality programs, supporting employment stability of their parents, and increasing the financial stability of high quality early learning providers.  Directors of participating early learning programs were surveyed at the beginning and end of the Pilot’s first year.  This report captures director perceptions of the benefits and disadvantages of participation in the Pilot for children and parents and early learning programs at the time the Pilot was being launched.

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      Does policy matter? The effect of increasing child care subsidy policy generosity on program outcomes.

      (Research Article)Does policy matter? The effect of increasing child care subsidy policy generosity on program outcomes

      Authors(s): Deana Grobe, Roberta B. Weber and Elizabeth E. Davis.
      Published: 2014

      A dramatic change in the generosity of one state's child care subsidy policy provides an opportunity to study the relationship between subsidy policy generosity and program outcomes.We find positive effects of policy generosity on child care usage and continuity in the program. We also find these outcomes affected by employment characteristics of participating parents. Unstable employment as evidenced by frequent employment losses, job changes, and periods of unemployment, challenge the ability of a parent to remain in a programtightly linked to being employed. Generosity of subsidy policy is positively related to achievement of Child Care and Development Fund program goals of continuity and parental access to care that meets the developmental needs of their child.

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      Struggling to Pay the Bills:
      Using Mixed-Methods to Understand Families' Financial Stress and Child Care Costs
      (Research Article)Struggling to pay the bills

      Author(s): Deana Grobe, Roberta B. Weber, Elizabeth E. Davis, and Ellen K. Scott
      Published: 2012

      This study examines parents' financial stress associated with obtaining care for young children while employed in unstable low-wage jobs. The child care subsidy program aims to both improve child care quality and support employment, and we expect that a substantial infusion of resources into this program would reduce parents' financial stress.

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        Oregon Subsidy Policy Impact Research Project: Parent Survey

        Author(s): Roberta B. Weber and Deana Grobe
        Published: August, 2011

        The Subsidy Policy Impact Research Project includes three studies that use a combination of methods in order to increase understanding of how child care subsidies affect parental child care and employment decisions. In this executive summary and report, we use the findings of the first study, in-depth interviews with 44 subsidy recipients, as the framework for reporting the findings from the second study, the telephone survey of 580 current and past subsidy recipients. Thus, we can assess the extent to which the findings from the in-depth interviews can be generalized to a broader group of subsidy parents and enrich the findings from the telephone survey by relating them to the deep understanding that came from the in-person interviews.

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        Oregon’s Employment-Related Child-Care Subsidy Program: An Investment That Makes Employment Work for Low-Wage Families (Executive Summary)
        Assessing the Impacts of Oregon’s 2007 Changes to Child-Care Subsidy Policy (Research Report)

        Author(s): Ellen K. Scott, Ann Shirley Leymon, and Miriam-Abelson
        The purpose of this qualitative study was to more fully understand the impact of the child care subsidy policies on the employment and child-care decisions of participating families. The study is based on in-depth interviews with forty-four recipients of ERDC subsidies. The findings include: an understanding of the complex relationships between parents’ employment and child care arrangements, the use of the subsidies and their effects on stability of employment and child care, the cost burden associated with child care even in the context of generous subsidies, the factors driving changes in child care arrangements, the role of personal networks in managing employment and child care, how well the DHS and the subsidy system are functioning for low-wage working parents, and how hard parents work to manage their lives and provide for their children.
        Published: January, 2011

         

        Rural-Urban Differences in Childcare Subsidy Use and Employment Stability (Research Article) 

        Author(s): Elizabeth E. Davis, Deana Grobe, Roberta B. Weber

        This study analyzes the dynamics of program participation and employment stability for rural and urban families in Oregon childcare subsidy program. While families’ demographic characteristics, employment stability, and participation in work support programs were similar, families in rural noncore counties tended to make less use of public assistance, including childcare subsidies, food stamps and welfare, than did families in metropolitan and micropolitan counties.

        Published: Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy, 32(1), 2010

         

        Why Do They Leave? Child Care Subsidy Use in Oregon (Research Article)

        Author(s): Deana Grobe, Roberta B. Weber, Elizabeth E. Davis

        This study fills an important gap about child care subsidy participation by exploring why parents leave the subsidy program in Oregon. Descriptive analyses using administrative data showed unexpectedly high levels of employment stability and low levels of family mobility. Many families appeared to remain eligible after exit based on earnings and participation in other means-tested assistance programs. Estimates from a Cox regression model showed that subsidy policies were associated with exits. Being in the last month of an eligibility period increased the likelihood of exiting the subsidy program by two to three times. This result suggests that lengthening eligibility period could increase the stability of subsidy usage and possibly subsidized child care arrangements.

        Published: Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 29, 2008

         

        Why Do They Leave? Child Care Subsidy Use in Oregon (Research Report)

        Author(s): Deana Grobe, Roberta B. Weber, Elizabeth E. Davis
        The short duration of subsidy use and the possible implications for the stability of child care arrangements, child development, and parental employment stability were the primary motivations behind this study to investigate the reasons parents leave the subsidy program after only a few months. This report explores three main hypotheses on why parents leave the subsidy program: (i) Instability in other aspects of their lives, such as employment changes or family mobility, disrupts participation in the subsidy program. (ii) Parents are no longer eligible for subsidy (particularly due to increased income). (iii) Parents perceive the cost in time and effort of maintaining a subsidy is greater than the benefit of the subsidy.
        Published: March, 2006

         

        Why Do They Leave? Child Care Subsidy Use in Oregon (Child Care Policy Research Issue Brief)

        Author(s): Deana Grobe, Roberta B. Weber, Elizabeth E. Davis
        This brief highlights the major findings from a study that explores three main hypotheses on why parents leave the subsidy program: (i) Instability in other aspects of their lives, such as employment changes or family mobility, disrupts participation in the subsidy program. (ii) Parents are no longer eligible for subsidy (particularly due to increased income). (iii) Parents perceive the cost in time and effort of maintaining a subsidy is greater than the benefit of the subsidy.
        Published: March, 2006

         

        Guidebook for Implementing a Study on the Dynamics of Child Care Subsidy Use (Guidebook)

        Author(s): Deana Grobe, Roberta Weber, Elizabeth Davis
        The purpose of this guidebook is to enable states and researchers to conduct their own studies on the dynamics of child care subsidy use. To accomplish this goal, this guidebook describes the methodology developed through a five-state study on this topic. Although there are various ways one could approach a study on child care subsidy use, replicating the same methodology will enable states to compare their findings with those of other states. These comparisons increase the usefulness of the states' findings. Further, by sharing states' findings, we will begin to create a national picture of the dynamics of child care subsidy use.
        Published: March, 2003

         

        The Dynamics of Child Care Subsidy Use: A Collaborative Study of Five States (Research Report)

        Author(s): Marcia Meyers, Laura Peck, Elizabeth Davis, Ann Collins, Lee Kreader, Annie Georges, Roberta Weber, Deanna Schexnayder, Daniel Schroeder, Jerry Olson
        To advance knowledge and understanding about the dynamic use of child care subsidies, this study used data from five states (Illinois, Maryland, Massachusetts, Oregon and Texas) to address the following questions about child care subsidy use and cross state variation: What are the characteristics of children and families who receive subsidies? What services do subsidized children and families in these states receive? How continuous is subsidy receipt; i.e., how long do spells of subsidy receipt last? What is the duration of subsidy use; i.e., how likely is it that children who end a spell of subsidy receipt subsequently begin another? How stable are children’s care arrangements while they are in the subsidy system?
        Published: July, 2002

         

        Continuity and Stability: Dynamics of Child Care Subsidy Use in Oregon (Research Report)

        Author(s): Roberta Weber, Elizabeth Davis
        This report provides a detailed look at Oregon families receiving child care subsidies and the factors associated with length of subsidy receipt and provider stability and compares these findings with those of four other states (Illinois, Maryland, Massachusetts, and Texas). It describes the characteristics of families and children receiving subsidies, the type of care used, the stability of that care, and the length of time on subsidy.
        Published: August, 2003

         

        Parents Receiving Child Care Subsidies: Where Do They Work? (Research Report and Guidebook)

        Author(s): Kumiko Okuyama, Roberta Weber
        This report summarizes seven studies that examine the employment patterns of child care subsidy recipients. While sharing the same basic methodology, these seven studies differ from each other in scope, time period, and data sources used in the analyses. The report also includes an Employer Study Guidebook to enable others to conduct their own employer study.
        Published: October, 2001

         

        AFS Consumer Survey: From Parents Receiving Child Care Assistance (Research Report)

        Authors(s): Arthur Emlen
        Oregon Adult and Family Services (AFS) conducts a periodic survey of parents who receive child-care assistance through the Integrated Child Care Program. The first child-care consumer survey was conducted in 1990, and provided information that was useful in making extensive changes in the program. The survey was carried out again in 1994, and more recently, in 1998. The survey asks questions such as what types of care parents use, how they get to work, what are their work schedules, how they rate their caregiver, whether they have choices, and how often they change caregivers. As a result of including similar questions in other Oregon consumer surveys, these data provide perspective on how AFS clients fare in the child-care market. This information can also be viewed in light of information from the survey of providers conducted at the same time. Findings
        Published: November, 1998

         

        AFS Provider Survey: From Child-Care Providers Serving Parents Who Receive Child-Care Assistance (Research Report)

        Author(s): Arthur Emlen
        Oregon Adult and Family Services (AFS) conducts a periodic survey of parents who are serving parents receiving child-care assistance through the Integrated Child Care Program. The first child-care provider survey was conducted in 1990, and provided information that was useful in making extensive changes in the program. The survey was carried out again in 1994, and more recently, in 1998. The survey identifies the type of care they provide, such as center, provider home, or child’s home, and asks how they collect fees from parents, what training has been completed, and how they evaluate the AFS program and payment system. This system can be viewed with information from a survey of parents conducted at the same time. Findings
        Published: November, 1998

         

        Oregon's Parents Receiving Child-Care Assistance: Where Do They Work? (Research Report)

        Author(s): Bryan Conway, Janis Elliot
        The purpose of this exploratory study was to identify the sources of employment for two groups of low-income employed parents: (1) those transitioning from public assistance, and (2) those who never received public assistance or who have not received public assistance during the past year. This study looks at the industries employing parents enrolled in Oregon’s child care subsidy program, Employment Related Day Care (ERDC). The study looks at the employment patterns, the industry in which the parent received the most wages in the quarter studied, and the average quarterly wages of parents employed in that industry. The study also looks at differences and similarities between different geographic areas in the state. In order to compare these parents to others in the workforce not receiving a child care subsidy, the study compares the parents in the study to the Oregon Labor Force as a whole and to the poorest fifth of Oregon’s Labor Force.
        Published: July 11, 1997