The goals of my research are to preserve health at older age, and to reduce disability, morbidity, and mortality in elderly adults. In my research, I aim to better characterize the processes of functional decline that accompany normal aging, and distinguish this from preventable disease. I also strive to improve our understanding of the optimal preventive strategies for disease in older adults, particularly the oldest old. The majority of my research has focused on kidney disease, cardiovascular outcomes, and loss of physical function in older adults. I am also strongly interested in epidemiological and statistical methods to reduce biases in observational studies. In my research I have used causal inference statistical methods including marginal structural models to better estimate the causal effect of risk factors for disease.