Toy-Based Technologies

We work with families, clinicians, and industry to provide pediatric toy-based technology to children with disabilities for independent participation and function. Commercially available, battery-operated, ride-on cars are adapted by installing a large, easy-to-press activation switch that is placed on the steering wheel. The switch has a large surface area and turns on at the slightest touch allowing easier activation for children with disabilities. Common materials such as PVC pipe, swimming kickboards and fun noodles, and Velcro are used to build a custom seating system that provides optimum support for each child.

The purpose of this research is to determine if promotion of early mobility in children with Down syndrome has a positive impact on development. Typically developing infants begin to walk around 12 months of age. Infants diagnosed with Down syndrome begin to walk around 24 months of age. This delay in walking limits a child’s opportunities for play and delays overall development. Our aim is to promote an earlier onset of these motor milestones through daily use of a modified ride-on car. The modified ride-on cars used in this study includes two versions: Seated version: A child must reach with their hand to activate the switch. Standing version: A child must stand up in order to activate the switch to encourage the physical skills of pulling from sit-to-stand, weight bearing, and balance

Representative Publications

Logan, S.W., Feldner, H.A., Galloway, J.C., & Huang, H.H. (2016). Modified ride-on car use by children with complex medical needs. Pediatric Physical Therapy, 28 (1), 100-107.

Logan, S.W., Huang, H.H., Stahlin, K., & Galloway, J.C. (2014). Modified ride-on car use for mobility and socialization: Single-case study of an infant with Down syndrome. Pediatric Physical Therapy, 26 (4), 418-426. 


Inclusive Playgroup

Inclusive play settings have demonstrated positive developmental and behavioral outcomes for young children with and without disabilities. The purpose of the present study is to document the effect of providing an enriched environment, comprised of age- and developmentally appropriate toys, within an inclusive playgroup on the play behaviors of children with and without disabilities.
The purposes of this research are: (1) To determine the physical activity, social interactions, and object-use behaviors (assessed weekly) of children with and without disabilities during the baseline period of participation in an inclusive playgroup, and (2) To determine the effect of an ‘enriched environment’ intervention on physical activity, social interactions, and object-use behaviors during an inclusive playgroup of children with and without disabilities. The enriched environment is defined as the addition of age- and developmentally toys and play-structures (e.g. modified ride-on-cars, balls, mats, cones, and obstacle course). This study is an ongoing collaboration with Dr. Megan MacDonald, Associate Professor in Kinesiology, Oregon State University.

Representative Publications

Logan, S.W., Schreiber, M., Lobo, M.A., Pritchard, B., George, L., & Galloway, J.C. (2015). Real-world behavioral doses: Physical activity, play, and object-related behaviors of toddlers with and without disabilities. Pediatric Physical Therapy, 27 (4), 433-441.


Perceptions of Disability and Mobility

Research supports that (a) children with disabilities as young as 6 months of age can learn to drive powered mobility devices (such as a powered wheelchair), and (b) early provision of powered mobility devices positively impacts development across motor, cognitive and social domains. Traditional approaches to managing childhood disabilities have viewed powered mobility devices as a ‘last resort’ strategy, after efforts to enhance walking or typical movement patterns were deemed ineffective. However, current disability-centered initiatives are promoting early access to powered mobility devices, with consideration for child-and-family dynamics, environment accessibility factors, and involvement in age-appropriate activities.

The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of powered mobility use on caregivers’ perceptions of children’s daily experiences and participation, as well as caregivers’ perceptions towards powered mobility, self-efficacy, and disability. This study involves the distribution of an online survey. This study is an ongoing collaboration with Dr. Kathleen Bogart, Assistant Professor in Psychological Science, Oregon State University.

Representative Publications

Feldner, H.A., Logan, S.W., & Galloway, J.C. (2015). Why the time is right for a radical paradigm shift in early powered mobility: The role of mobility technology devices, policy, and stakeholders. Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, early online.


Fundamental Motor Skills

The term motor competence is used to describe an individual’s overall capability to perform a variety of skills and tasks related to the motor domain. One term used to describe a specific aspect of motor competence is “fundamental motor skill”. FMS are typically divided into two types: object control and locomotor skills. Object control skills involve transporting, intercepting, or projecting objects such as throwing, catching, dribbling, kicking, underhand rolling, and striking. Locomotor skills include running, jumping, hopping, leaping, galloping, and sliding as different movements to transport the body from one location to another. The purpose of this research is to determine the relationship amongst fundamental motor skills, physical activity, and other health outcomes.

Representative Publications

Logan, S.W., Webster, E.K., Robinson, L.E., Getchell, N., & Pfieffer, K.A. (2015). The relationship between motor competence and physical activity engagement during childhood: A systematic review. Kinesiology Review, 4, 416-426.

Robinson, L.E., Stodden, D.F., Barnett, L.M., Lopes, V.P., Logan, S.W., D’Hondt, E., & Rodrigues, L.P. (2015). Motor competence and its effect on positive developmental trajectories of health. Sports Medicine, 45 (9), 1273-1284.

Logan, S.W., Robinson, L.E., Wilson, A.E, & Lucas, W.A. (2011). Getting the fundamentals of movement: A meta-analysis of the effectiveness of motor skill interventions in children. Child: Care, Health and Development, 38 (3), 305-315.